Matched 4 Courses / 136 Classes

Microeconomics Issues (ECN208) 3 Credits

Microeconomic principles applied to current problems of market structure, consumer preference, supply and demand, and the theory of the firm. Topics will include contemporary events that are suitable for application of the economic way of thinking. Prerequisites: None.

Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
35086 Fall 2020 Mesa: Dobson Campus
On Your Time Online Course
Online 10/19/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • B. Al Hashimi
Open
23 of 25 Seats Available

Macroeconomic Principles (ECN211) 3 Credits

A descriptive analysis of the structure and functioning of the American economy. Emphasis on basic economic institutions and factors that determine national income and employment levels. Consideration given to the macroeconomic topics of national income, unemployment, inflation and monetary and fiscal policies. Prerequisites: None.

General Education Designations: SB

SUN# ECN2201
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
17336 Fall 2020 Chandler-Gilbert: Pecos Campus
CGCC Internet Online
Live Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 M,W 7:00AM - 8:15AM
  • G. Pearson
Open
6 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Live Online classes have sessions that meet online on specific days and times. Attendance in these sessions will be at the direction of the instructor, and additional work will be required on the student's own time. This course requires the use of a computer or mobile device with internet access, a webcam, speakers and microphone.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
17333 Fall 2020 Chandler-Gilbert: Pecos Campus
CGCC Internet Online
Live Online 08/24/2020 - 10/14/2020 M,W 8:30AM - 9:45AM
  • G. Pearson
Open
4 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: First Eight (8) Week Class
      Live Online classes have sessions that meet online on specific days and times. Attendance in these sessions will be at the direction of the instructor, and additional work will be required on the student's own time. This course requires the use of a computer or mobile device with internet access, a webcam, speakers and microphone.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
25553 Fall 2020 Paradise Valley: Black Mountain Campus
Online format w/Live Session
Live Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 M,W 9:30AM - 10:45AM
  • P. Abruzino
Open
13 of 23 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: This class has been changed from in-person to a "live online" class which meets with the instructor via the internet at the regularly scheduled dates and times set in the schedule. Students will be required to use online virtual meeting software (Google Hangouts or WebEx, both of which require a camera). This "live online" experience approximates the regular in-person class experience. Attendance at online sessions will be expected according to the instructor's attendance policy, which will be stated in the syllabus.
      Requires reliable internet access. An online briefing must be completed prior to beginning this course. Please go to https://www.paradisevalley.edu/academics/distance-learning/online-courses to begin your briefing. Access Canvas by the first day of class and click on "Getting Started" for instructions to begin your course. Contact the Center for Distance Learning for more information: 602.787.6754.
      Due to COVID19 impact; this course was transitioned from In-person or Hybrid to fully Online for Fall 2020.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
19447 Fall 2020 South Mountain
BE 133
Hybrid 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 M,W 10:00AM - 11:15AM
  • R. Johnson
Open
16 of 25 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
34872 Fall 2020 Mesa: Dobson Campus
Live Online Course
Live Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 M,W 10:30AM - 11:45AM
  • D. Henney
Open
11 of 20 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Live Online classes have sessions that meet online on specific days and times. Attendance in these sessions will be at the discretion of the instructor, and additional work will be required on the student’s own time. Access to a computer or mobile device with Internet connection is required.

      Before enrolling in their first online class at MCC, students need to view the online orientation and complete the readiness survey on https://www.mesacc.edu/online/get-started for additional information.
      Class 34872 Students may contact instructor at: debra.henney@mesacc.edu
      Honors Program Only
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
34874 Fall 2020 Mesa: Dobson Campus
Live Online Course
Live Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 M,W 12:00PM - 12:50PM
  • D. Henney
Open
13 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Live Online classes have sessions that meet online on specific days and times. Attendance in these sessions will be at the discretion of the instructor, and additional work will be required on the student’s own time. Access to a computer or mobile device with Internet connection is required.

      Before enrolling in their first online class at MCC, students need to view the online orientation and complete the readiness survey on https://www.mesacc.edu/online/get-started for additional information.
      Class 34874 Students may contact instructor at: debra.henney@mesacc.edu
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
17334 Fall 2020 Chandler-Gilbert: Pecos Campus
CGCC Internet Online
Live Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 M,W 2:30PM - 3:45PM
  • D. Sweat
Open
14 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Live Online classes have sessions that meet online on specific days and times. Attendance in these sessions will be at the direction of the instructor, and additional work will be required on the student's own time. This course requires the use of a computer or mobile device with internet access, a webcam, speakers and microphone.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
37383 Fall 2020 Estrella Mountain
Ocotillo LearnStudio 107
In Person 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 M,W 2:30PM - 3:45PM
  • S. Azimi-Thomas
Open
10 of 16 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Class 37383 costs include OER Course Materials Fee: $30
    • Additional Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      OER (Open Educational Resources) Materials Fee $30.00
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
37379 Fall 2020 Estrella Mountain
Live Online Instruction
Live Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 M,W,F 8:00AM - 8:50AM
  • V. Amavilah
Open
21 of 32 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: This section has been transitioned to a Live Online class. This class section will meet synchronously in a virtually remote environment (Webex, Zoom, etc) during the scheduled class times. Attendance in these synchronous class sessions is required for this section. Additional online work that is not synchronous is also included during the duration the classes are offered and have set due dates for assignments.Students are required to have access to a computer or mobile device, and Internet access, unless otherwise specified.
      Class 37379 costs include OER Course Materials Fee: $30
    • Additional Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      OER (Open Educational Resources) Materials Fee $30.00
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
37380 Fall 2020 Estrella Mountain
Live Online Instruction
Live Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 M,W,F 10:00AM - 10:50AM
  • V. Amavilah
Open
23 of 32 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: This section has been transitioned to a Live Online class. This class section will meet synchronously in a virtually remote environment (Webex, Zoom, etc) during the scheduled class times. Attendance in these synchronous class sessions is required for this section. Additional online work that is not synchronous is also included during the duration the classes are offered and have set due dates for assignments.Students are required to have access to a computer or mobile device, and Internet access, unless otherwise specified.
      Class 37380 costs include OER Course Materials Fee: $30
    • Additional Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      OER (Open Educational Resources) Materials Fee $30.00
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
17335 Fall 2020 Chandler-Gilbert: Pecos Campus
CGCC Internet Online
Live Online 08/25/2020 - 12/18/2020 Tu 10:00AM - 11:15AM
  • M. McGlasson
Open
1 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      Live Online classes have sessions that meet online on specific days and times. Attendance in these sessions will be at the direction of the instructor, and additional work will be required on the student's own time. This course requires the use of a computer or mobile device with internet access, a webcam, speakers and microphone.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
19564 Fall 2020 South Mountain
TC 226
Hybrid 08/25/2020 - 10/15/2020 Tu 6:00PM - 9:20PM
  • M. Niemira
Open
21 of 25 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
17443 Fall 2020 Chandler-Gilbert: Pecos Campus
CGCC Internet Online
Live Online 08/25/2020 - 12/18/2020 Tu 7:00PM - 9:40PM
  • K. Collins
Open
16 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Live Online classes have sessions that meet online on specific days and times. Attendance in these sessions will be at the direction of the instructor, and additional work will be required on the student's own time. This course requires the use of a computer or mobile device with internet access, a webcam, speakers and microphone.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
34901 Fall 2020 Mesa: Red Mountain Campus
Red Mountain Saguaro Room S279
In Person 08/25/2020 - 12/18/2020 Tu 7:10PM - 9:40PM
  • J. Holaday
Open
7 of 14 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
37381 Fall 2020 Estrella Mountain
Ocotillo LearnStudio 107
In Person 08/25/2020 - 12/18/2020 Tu,Th 8:30AM - 9:45AM
  • V. Amavilah
Open
9 of 16 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Class 37381 costs include OER Course Materials Fee: $30
    • Additional Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      OER (Open Educational Resources) Materials Fee $30.00
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
17337 Fall 2020 Chandler-Gilbert: Pecos Campus
CGCC Internet Online
Live Online 08/25/2020 - 12/18/2020 Tu,Th 8:30AM - 9:45AM
  • G. Pearson
Open
10 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Live Online classes have sessions that meet online on specific days and times. Attendance in these sessions will be at the direction of the instructor, and additional work will be required on the student's own time. This course requires the use of a computer or mobile device with internet access, a webcam, speakers and microphone.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
19460 Fall 2020 South Mountain
BE 134
Hybrid 09/08/2020 - 12/18/2020 Tu,Th 10:00AM - 11:15AM
  • B. McHenry
Open
19 of 25 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
37382 Fall 2020 Estrella Mountain
Ocotillo LearnStudio 107
In Person 08/25/2020 - 12/18/2020 Tu,Th 11:30AM - 12:45PM
  • V. Amavilah
Open
1 of 16 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Class 37382 costs include OER Course Materials Fee: $30
    • Additional Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      OER (Open Educational Resources) Materials Fee $30.00
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
17536 Fall 2020 Chandler-Gilbert: Pecos Campus
CGCC Internet Online
Live Online 08/25/2020 - 12/18/2020 Tu,Th 12:00PM - 1:15PM
  • G. Pearson
Open
18 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Live Online classes have sessions that meet online on specific days and times. Attendance in these sessions will be at the direction of the instructor, and additional work will be required on the student's own time. This course requires the use of a computer or mobile device with internet access, a webcam, speakers and microphone.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
17417 Fall 2020 Chandler-Gilbert: Pecos Campus
CGCC Internet Online
Live Online 08/25/2020 - 12/18/2020 Tu,Th 1:00PM - 2:15PM
  • Staff
Open
16 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Live Online classes have sessions that meet online on specific days and times. Attendance in these sessions will be at the direction of the instructor, and additional work will be required on the student's own time. This course requires the use of a computer or mobile device with internet access, a webcam, speakers and microphone.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
17338 Fall 2020 Chandler-Gilbert: Pecos Campus
CGCC Internet Online
Live Online 08/27/2020 - 12/18/2020 Th 10:00AM - 11:15AM
  • M. McGlasson
Open
21 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Live Online classes have sessions that meet online on specific days and times. Attendance in these sessions will be at the direction of the instructor, and additional work will be required on the student's own time. This course requires the use of a computer or mobile device with internet access, a webcam, speakers and microphone.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
10091 Fall 2020 GateWay
Online
Online 08/24/2020 - 10/15/2020 N/A N/A
  • H. Hutchins
Open
12 of 24 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: This is a fast-paced HYBRID course that meets in-class according to the schedule listed above. Attendance at in-class meetings and participation in face-to-face activities is required. In addition, there will be significant work required outside of class and online. Basic computer skills and reliable access to a computer and the Internet are REQUIRED for completion of this course. Students not attending the first day of class will be dropped.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
13419 Fall 2020 Glendale
Online Class
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • D. Zhosan
Open
4 of 20 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      For Honors students only.
      Online Class
      Online classes do not have mandatory meeting times but may include optional virtual components such as review sessions, office hours, etc. at specific times. Students are required to submit a minimum initial assignment within the first five days of class, including the start date. Students are required to have access to a computer/mobile device and reliable Internet access.
      Please contact the department with any questions.
    • Additional Class Notes: Recommendations: Eligibility for ENG101 and MAT122.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
13563 Fall 2020 Glendale
Online Class
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • P. Minarik
Open
1 of 24 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      Online Class
      Online classes do not have mandatory meeting times but may include optional virtual components such as review sessions, office hours, etc. at specific times. Students are required to submit a minimum initial assignment within the first five days of class, including the start date. Students are required to have access to a computer/mobile device and reliable Internet access.
      Please contact the department with any questions.
    • Additional Class Notes: Recommendations: Eligibility for ENG101 and MAT122.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
34871 Fall 2020 Mesa: Dobson Campus
On Your Time Online Course
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • B. Al Hashimi
Open
17 of 25 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
34873 Fall 2020 Mesa: Dobson Campus
On Your Time Online Course
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • S. Cavalcant
Open
14 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: This is an On Your Time Online class that does not meet at specific class times. Students are required to have access to a computer or mobile device, and Internet access, unless otherwise specified.

      Before enrolling in their first online class at MCC, students need to view the online orientation and complete the readiness survey on https://www.mesacc.edu/online/get-started for additional information.
      Class 34873 Students may contact instructor at: sylwia.martynowicz@mesacc.edu
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
34876 Fall 2020 Mesa: Dobson Campus
On Your Time Online Course
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • P. Benson
Open
19 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: This is an On Your Time Online class that does not meet at specific class times. Students are required to have access to a computer or mobile device, and Internet access, unless otherwise specified.

      Before enrolling in their first online class at MCC, students need to view the online orientation and complete the readiness survey on https://www.mesacc.edu/online/get-started for additional information.
      Class 34876 Students may contact instructor at: philip.benson@mesacc.edu
      All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
34877 Fall 2020 Mesa: Dobson Campus
On Your Time Online Course
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • P. Benson
Open
21 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: This is an On Your Time Online class that does not meet at specific class times. Students are required to have access to a computer or mobile device, and Internet access, unless otherwise specified.

      Before enrolling in their first online class at MCC, students need to view the online orientation and complete the readiness survey on https://www.mesacc.edu/online/get-started for additional information.
      Class 34877 Students may contact instructor at: philip.benson@mesacc.edu
      All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
34878 Fall 2020 Mesa: Dobson Campus
On Your Time Online Course
Online 09/08/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • P. Benson
Open
26 of 30 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: This is an On Your Time Online class that does not meet at specific class times. Students are required to have access to a computer or mobile device, and Internet access, unless otherwise specified.

      Before enrolling in their first online class at MCC, students need to view the online orientation and complete the readiness survey on https://www.mesacc.edu/online/get-started for additional information.
      Class 34878 Students may contact instructor at: philip.benson@mesacc.edu
      All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
34879 Fall 2020 Mesa: Dobson Campus
On Your Time Online Course
Online 08/24/2020 - 10/16/2020 N/A N/A
  • S. Cavalcant
Open
5 of 25 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
34880 Fall 2020 Mesa: Dobson Campus
On Your Time Online Course
Online 08/24/2020 - 10/16/2020 N/A N/A
  • J. Demory
Open
21 of 25 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
34881 Fall 2020 Mesa: Dobson Campus
On Your Time Online Course
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • M. Abajian
Open
6 of 25 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
13517 Fall 2020 Glendale
Online Class
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • B. Young
Open
13 of 24 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Online Class
      Online classes do not have mandatory meeting times but may include optional virtual components such as review sessions, office hours, etc. at specific times. Students are required to submit a minimum initial assignment within the first five days of class, including the start date. Students are required to have access to a computer/mobile device and reliable Internet access.
      Please contact the department with any questions.
      All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
    • Additional Class Notes: Recommendations: Eligibility for ENG101 and MAT122.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
13534 Fall 2020 Glendale
Online Class
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • B. Young
Open
20 of 24 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      Online Class
      Online classes do not have mandatory meeting times but may include optional virtual components such as review sessions, office hours, etc. at specific times. Students are required to submit a minimum initial assignment within the first five days of class, including the start date. Students are required to have access to a computer/mobile device and reliable Internet access.
      Please contact the department with any questions.
    • Additional Class Notes: Recommendations: Eligibility for ENG101 and MAT122.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
13485 Fall 2020 Glendale
Online Class
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • P. Minarik
Open
3 of 24 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      Online Class
      Online classes do not have mandatory meeting times but may include optional virtual components such as review sessions, office hours, etc. at specific times. Students are required to submit a minimum initial assignment within the first five days of class, including the start date. Students are required to have access to a computer/mobile device and reliable Internet access.
      Please contact the department with any questions.
    • Additional Class Notes: Recommendations: Eligibility for ENG101 and MAT122.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
13486 Fall 2020 Glendale
Online Class
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • P. Minarik
Open
21 of 24 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      Online Class
      Online classes do not have mandatory meeting times but may include optional virtual components such as review sessions, office hours, etc. at specific times. Students are required to submit a minimum initial assignment within the first five days of class, including the start date. Students are required to have access to a computer/mobile device and reliable Internet access.
      Please contact the department with any questions.
    • Additional Class Notes: Recommendations: Eligibility for ENG101 and MAT122.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
13488 Fall 2020 Glendale
Online Class
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • D. Zhosan
Open
8 of 24 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Online Class
      Online classes do not have mandatory meeting times but may include optional virtual components such as review sessions, office hours, etc. at specific times. Students are required to submit a minimum initial assignment within the first five days of class, including the start date. Students are required to have access to a computer/mobile device and reliable Internet access.
      Please contact the department with any questions.
      All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
    • Additional Class Notes: Recommendations: Eligibility for ENG101 and MAT122.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
13494 Fall 2020 Glendale
Online Class
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • D. Zhosan
Open
2 of 24 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      Online Class
      Online classes do not have mandatory meeting times but may include optional virtual components such as review sessions, office hours, etc. at specific times. Students are required to submit a minimum initial assignment within the first five days of class, including the start date. Students are required to have access to a computer/mobile device and reliable Internet access.
      Please contact the department with any questions.
    • Additional Class Notes: Recommendations: Eligibility for ENG101 and MAT122.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
13420 Fall 2020 Glendale
Online Class
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • D. Zhosan
Open
8 of 24 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      Online Class
      Online classes do not have mandatory meeting times but may include optional virtual components such as review sessions, office hours, etc. at specific times. Students are required to submit a minimum initial assignment within the first five days of class, including the start date. Students are required to have access to a computer/mobile device and reliable Internet access.
      Please contact the department with any questions.
    • Additional Class Notes: Recommendations: Eligibility for ENG101 and MAT122.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
13421 Fall 2020 Glendale
Online Class
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • Staff
Open
11 of 24 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      Online Class
      Online classes do not have mandatory meeting times but may include optional virtual components such as review sessions, office hours, etc. at specific times. Students are required to submit a minimum initial assignment within the first five days of class, including the start date. Students are required to have access to a computer/mobile device and reliable Internet access.
      Please contact the department with any questions.
    • Additional Class Notes: Recommendations: Eligibility for ENG101 and MAT122.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
13422 Fall 2020 Glendale
Online Class
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • Staff
Open
20 of 24 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      Online Class
      Online classes do not have mandatory meeting times but may include optional virtual components such as review sessions, office hours, etc. at specific times. Students are required to submit a minimum initial assignment within the first five days of class, including the start date. Students are required to have access to a computer/mobile device and reliable Internet access.
      Please contact the department with any questions.
    • Additional Class Notes: Recommendations: Eligibility for ENG101 and MAT122.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
37386 Fall 2020 Estrella Mountain
Internet/ Online Class
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • K. Archer
Open
27 of 32 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: This class has been transitioned to an online class. Coursework must be completed according to set deadlines. Students are required to have access to a computer or mobile device, and Internet access, unless otherwise specified
      Class 37386 costs include OER Course Materials Fee: $30
    • Additional Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      OER (Open Educational Resources) Materials Fee $30.00
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
37388 Fall 2020 Estrella Mountain
Internet/ Online Class
Online 10/19/2020 - 12/11/2020 N/A N/A
  • S. Ghazi
Open
26 of 32 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Flex Start Class
      This class has been transitioned to an online class. Coursework must be completed according to set deadlines. Students are required to have access to a computer or mobile device, and Internet access, unless otherwise specified
      Class 37388 costs include OER Course Materials Fee: $30
    • Additional Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      OER (Open Educational Resources) Materials Fee $30.00
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
38412 Fall 2020 Estrella Mountain
Internet/ Online Class
Online 08/24/2020 - 10/16/2020 N/A N/A
  • S. Ghazi
Open
9 of 32 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Flex Start Class
      Class 38412 costs include OER Course Materials Fee: $30
    • Additional Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      OER (Open Educational Resources) Materials Fee $30.00
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
38413 Fall 2020 Estrella Mountain
Internet/ Online Class
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • E. Huntsinger
Open
19 of 32 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Flex Start Class
      Class 38413 costs include OER Course Materials Fee: $30
    • Additional Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      OER (Open Educational Resources) Materials Fee $30.00
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
36366 Fall 2020 Mesa: Dobson Campus
On Your Time Online Course
Online 10/19/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • N. Bergan
Open
16 of 25 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
36512 Fall 2020 Mesa: Dobson Campus
On Your Time Online Course
Online 10/19/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • N. Bergan
Open
25 of 25 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
34902 Fall 2020 Mesa: Dobson Campus
On Your Time Online Course
Online 09/08/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • A. Pal
Open
22 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: This is an On Your Time Online class that does not meet at specific class times. Students are required to have access to a computer or mobile device, and Internet access, unless otherwise specified.

      Before enrolling in their first online class at MCC, students need to view the online orientation and complete the readiness survey on https://www.mesacc.edu/online/get-started for additional information.
      Class 34902 Students may contact instructor at: anindita.pal@mesacc.edu
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
34912 Fall 2020 Mesa: Dobson Campus
On Your Time Online Course
Online 08/24/2020 - 10/16/2020 N/A N/A
  • B. Al Hashimi
Open
18 of 25 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
34916 Fall 2020 Mesa: Dobson Campus
On Your Time Online Course
Online 09/08/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • C. Nguyen
Open
22 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: This is an On Your Time Online class that does not meet at specific class times. Students are required to have access to a computer or mobile device, and Internet access, unless otherwise specified.

      Before enrolling in their first online class at MCC, students need to view the online orientation and complete the readiness survey on https://www.mesacc.edu/online/get-started for additional information.
      Class 34916 Students may contact instructor at: chau.nguyen@mesacc.edu
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
34919 Fall 2020 Mesa: Dobson Campus
On Your Time Online Course
Online 09/08/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • B. Al Hashimi
Open
17 of 25 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
20439 Fall 2020 Phoenix
ONLINE CANVAS
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • R. Bromley
Open
8 of 20 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
20440 Fall 2020 Phoenix
ONLINE CANVAS
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/19/2020 N/A N/A
  • S. Thorpe
Open
11 of 20 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
20441 Fall 2020 Phoenix
ONLINE CANVAS
Online 08/24/2020 - 10/17/2020 N/A N/A
  • S. Thorpe
Open
15 of 20 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Online Class
      All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      For more information, contact instructor Steve Thorpe at 602.285.7819 or steve.thorpe@phoenixcollege.edu
      Class Meets for Eight (8) Weeks
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
24230 Fall 2020 Paradise Valley
Choices@PV: Online
Online 09/08/2020 - 12/13/2020 N/A N/A
  • Staff
Open
11 of 23 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Do not purchase text until after first class meeting.
      Online courses require reliable internet access. If you have not taken an online course or used the Canvas Classroom, go to https://www.paradisevalley.edu/academics/distance-learning/online-briefing to read the Online Briefing and take the tutorial. Contact Distance Learning for more information: 602-787-6754.
      Due to COVID19 impact; this course was transitioned from In-person or Hybrid to fully Online for Fall 2020.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
24233 Fall 2020 Paradise Valley
Choices@PV: Online
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/13/2020 N/A N/A
  • P. Thiel
Open
7 of 23 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Online courses require reliable internet access. If you have not taken an online course or used the Canvas Classroom, go to https://www.paradisevalley.edu/academics/distance-learning/online-briefing to read the Online Briefing and take the tutorial. Contact Distance Learning for more information: 602-787-6754.
      Due to COVID19 impact; this course was transitioned from In-person or Hybrid to fully Online for Fall 2020.
      No textbook required for this class.
      All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
24259 Fall 2020 Paradise Valley
Choices@PV: Online
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/13/2020 N/A N/A
  • P. Thiel
Open
17 of 23 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Online courses require reliable internet access. If you have not taken an online course or used the Canvas Classroom, go to https://www.paradisevalley.edu/academics/distance-learning/online-briefing to read the Online Briefing and take the tutorial. Contact Distance Learning for more information: 602-787-6754.
      Due to COVID19 impact; this course was transitioned from In-person or Hybrid to fully Online for Fall 2020.
      No textbook required for this class.
      All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
24268 Fall 2020 Paradise Valley
Choices@PV: Online
Online 09/08/2020 - 12/13/2020 N/A N/A
  • Staff
Open
20 of 23 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Do not purchase text until after first class meeting.
      Online courses require reliable internet access. If you have not taken an online course or used the Canvas Classroom, go to https://www.paradisevalley.edu/academics/distance-learning/online-briefing to read the Online Briefing and take the tutorial. Contact Distance Learning for more information: 602-787-6754.
      Due to COVID19 impact; this course was transitioned from In-person or Hybrid to fully Online for Fall 2020.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
24270 Fall 2020 Paradise Valley
Choices@PV: Online
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/13/2020 N/A N/A
  • C. Nguyen
Open
8 of 23 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
26554 Fall 2020 Rio Salado
Online Class
Online: You can start on any Monday between dates: 08/24/2020 - 10/12/2020 N/A N/A
  • Staff
Open
15 of 30 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Twelve (12) Week Class
      8-week class option available
      All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
26555 Fall 2020 Rio Salado
Online Class
Online: You can start on any Monday between dates: 10/19/2020 - 12/07/2020 N/A N/A
  • Staff
Open
29 of 30 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Twelve (12) Week Class
      8-week class option available
      All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
18123 Fall 2020 Scottsdale
On Your Time Online
Online 08/24/2020 - 10/16/2020 N/A N/A
  • A. Pal
Open
4 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: On Your Time Online classes do not meet at specific class times. Coursework must be completed according to deadlines. Students are required to have access to a computer or mobile device, and Internet access, unless otherwise specified.
      8-Week Class
      All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
18124 Fall 2020 Scottsdale
On Your Time Online
Online 08/24/2020 - 10/16/2020 N/A N/A
  • M. Nagano
Open
13 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      On Your Time Online classes do not meet at specific class times. Coursework must be completed according to deadlines. Students are required to have access to a computer or mobile device, and Internet access, unless otherwise specified.
      8-Week Class
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
18125 Fall 2020 Scottsdale
On Your Time Online
Online 08/24/2020 - 10/16/2020 N/A N/A
  • M. Nagano
Open
18 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      On Your Time Online classes do not meet at specific class times. Coursework must be completed according to deadlines. Students are required to have access to a computer or mobile device, and Internet access, unless otherwise specified.
      8-Week Class
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
18126 Fall 2020 Scottsdale
On Your Time Online
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • M. Nagano
Open
14 of 25 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
18127 Fall 2020 Scottsdale
On Your Time Online
Online 10/26/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • D. Kumar
Open
22 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: 8-Week Class
      On Your Time Online classes do not meet at specific class times. Coursework must be completed according to deadlines. Students are required to have access to a computer or mobile device, and Internet access, unless otherwise specified.
      Canvas login: https://maricopa.instructure.com/login.
      All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
26534 Fall 2020 Rio Salado
Print Based
Print Based: You can start on any Monday between dates: 08/24/2020 - 10/12/2020 N/A N/A
  • Staff
Open
29 of 30 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Twelve (12) Week Class
      This is a correspondence class. Only the cost of tuition, fees and books is permitted for financial aid. Students pursuing a certificate program are not permitted to receive federal financial aid for correspondence classes. Students cannot complete more than 50% of their program of study via correspondence courses. If you use financial aid to pay for school, please review Section II of your Financial Aid Terms and Conditions at the following web site:
      http://www.riosalado.edu/financial_aid/terms-conditions/Pages/default.aspx .
      All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
26535 Fall 2020 Rio Salado
Print Based
Print Based: You can start on any Monday between dates: 10/19/2020 - 12/07/2020 N/A N/A
  • Staff
Open
30 of 30 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Twelve (12) Week Class
      This is a correspondence class. Only the cost of tuition, fees and books is permitted for financial aid. Students pursuing a certificate program are not permitted to receive federal financial aid for correspondence classes. Students cannot complete more than 50% of their program of study via correspondence courses. If you use financial aid to pay for school, please review Section II of your Financial Aid Terms and Conditions at the following web site:
      http://www.riosalado.edu/financial_aid/terms-conditions/Pages/default.aspx .
      All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
18182 Fall 2020 Scottsdale
On Your Time Online
Online 09/21/2020 - 11/13/2020 N/A N/A
  • D. Kumar
Open
24 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: 8-Week Class
      On Your Time Online classes do not meet at specific class times. Coursework must be completed according to deadlines. Students are required to have access to a computer or mobile device, and Internet access, unless otherwise specified.
      All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
18189 Fall 2020 Scottsdale
On Your Time Online
Online 10/19/2020 - 12/11/2020 N/A N/A
  • B. Janis
Open
21 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: On Your Time Online classes do not meet at specific class times. Coursework must be completed according to deadlines. Students are required to have access to a computer or mobile device, and Internet access, unless otherwise specified.
      All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
19602 Fall 2020 South Mountain
ONLINE
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • B. McHenry
Open
20 of 30 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
20743 Fall 2020 Phoenix
ONLINE CANVAS
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • R. Bromley
Open
9 of 20 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
25389 Fall 2020 Paradise Valley
Choices@PV: Online
Online 09/08/2020 - 12/13/2020 N/A N/A
  • Staff
Open
19 of 23 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Do not purchase text until after first class meeting.
      Online courses require reliable internet access. If you have not taken an online course or used the Canvas Classroom, go to https://www.paradisevalley.edu/academics/distance-learning/online-briefing to read the Online Briefing and take the tutorial. Contact Distance Learning for more information: 602-787-6754.
      Due to COVID19 impact; this course was transitioned from In-person or Hybrid to fully Online for Fall 2020.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
18947 Fall 2020 Scottsdale
On Your Time Online
Online 08/31/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • D. Kumar
Open
22 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      On Your Time Online classes do not meet at specific class times. Coursework must be completed according to deadlines. Students are required to have access to a computer or mobile device, and Internet access, unless otherwise specified.

Microeconomic Principles (ECN212) 3 Credits

Microeconomic analysis including the theory of consumer choice, price determination, resource allocation and income distribution. Includes non-competitive market structures such as monopoly and oligopoly; and the effects of government regulation. Prerequisites: None.

General Education Designations: SB

SUN# ECN2202
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
17385 Fall 2020 Chandler-Gilbert: Pecos Campus
CGCC Internet Online
Live Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 M 7:00PM - 9:40PM
  • K. Collins
Open
23 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Live Online classes have sessions that meet online on specific days and times. Attendance in these sessions will be at the direction of the instructor, and additional work will be required on the student's own time. This course requires the use of a computer or mobile device with internet access, a webcam, speakers and microphone.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
17342 Fall 2020 Chandler-Gilbert: Pecos Campus
CGCC Internet Online
Live Online 10/19/2020 - 12/18/2020 M,W 8:30AM - 11:10AM
  • G. Pearson
Open
13 of 20 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Alternative Schedule
      Second Eight (8) Week Class
      Live Online classes have sessions that meet online on specific days and times. Attendance in these sessions will be at the direction of the instructor, and additional work will be required on the student's own time. This course requires the use of a computer or mobile device with internet access, a webcam, speakers and microphone.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
17345 Fall 2020 Chandler-Gilbert: Pecos Campus
CGCC Internet Online
Live Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 M,W 11:30AM - 12:45PM
  • G. Pearson
Open
16 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Live Online classes have sessions that meet online on specific days and times. Attendance in these sessions will be at the direction of the instructor, and additional work will be required on the student's own time. This course requires the use of a computer or mobile device with internet access, a webcam, speakers and microphone.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
19543 Fall 2020 South Mountain
BE 133
Hybrid 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 M,W 11:30AM - 12:45PM
  • R. Johnson
Open
20 of 25 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
17343 Fall 2020 Chandler-Gilbert: Pecos Campus
CGCC Internet Online
Live Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 M,W 1:00PM - 2:15PM
  • G. Pearson
Open
14 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Live Online classes have sessions that meet online on specific days and times. Attendance in these sessions will be at the direction of the instructor, and additional work will be required on the student's own time. This course requires the use of a computer or mobile device with internet access, a webcam, speakers and microphone.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
37389 Fall 2020 Estrella Mountain
Live Online Instruction
Live Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 M,W,F 9:00AM - 9:50AM
  • V. Amavilah
Open
15 of 32 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: This section has been transitioned to a Live Online class. This class section will meet synchronously in a virtually remote environment (Webex, Zoom, etc) during the scheduled class times. Attendance in these synchronous class sessions is required for this section. Additional online work that is not synchronous is also included during the duration the classes are offered and have set due dates for assignments.Students are required to have access to a computer or mobile device, and Internet access, unless otherwise specified.
      Class 37389 costs include OER Course Materials Fee: $30
    • Additional Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      OER (Open Educational Resources) Materials Fee $30.00
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
34903 Fall 2020 Mesa: Dobson Campus
SC 22
In Person 10/19/2020 - 12/18/2020 M,Th 7:10PM - 9:50PM
  • J. Holaday
Open
24 of 28 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
17346 Fall 2020 Chandler-Gilbert: Pecos Campus
CGCC Internet Online
Live Online 08/25/2020 - 12/18/2020 Tu 11:30AM - 12:45PM
  • M. McGlasson
Open
19 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Live Online classes have sessions that meet online on specific days and times. Attendance in these sessions will be at the direction of the instructor, and additional work will be required on the student's own time. This course requires the use of a computer or mobile device with internet access, a webcam, speakers and microphone.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
20185 Fall 2020 South Mountain
TC 226
Hybrid 10/20/2020 - 12/10/2020 Tu 6:00PM - 9:20PM
  • A. Cazar
Open
25 of 25 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
17341 Fall 2020 Chandler-Gilbert: Pecos Campus
CGCC Internet Online
Live Online 08/25/2020 - 12/18/2020 Tu,Th 7:00AM - 8:15AM
  • G. Pearson
Open
8 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Live Online classes have sessions that meet online on specific days and times. Attendance in these sessions will be at the direction of the instructor, and additional work will be required on the student's own time. This course requires the use of a computer or mobile device with internet access, a webcam, speakers and microphone.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
34885 Fall 2020 Mesa: Dobson Campus
Live Online Course
Live Online 08/25/2020 - 12/18/2020 Tu,Th 10:30AM - 11:45AM
  • S. Cavalcant
Open
16 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Live Online classes have sessions that meet online on specific days and times. Attendance in these sessions will be at the discretion of the instructor, and additional work will be required on the student’s own time. Access to a computer or mobile device with Internet connection is required.

      Before enrolling in their first online class at MCC, students need to view the online orientation and complete the readiness survey on https://www.mesacc.edu/online/get-started for additional information.
      Class 34885 Students may contact instructor at: sylwia.martynowicz@mesacc.edu
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
19466 Fall 2020 South Mountain
BE 134
Hybrid 09/08/2020 - 12/18/2020 Tu,Th 11:30AM - 12:45PM
  • B. McHenry
Open
20 of 25 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
34886 Fall 2020 Mesa: Dobson Campus
Live Online Course
Live Online 09/08/2020 - 12/18/2020 Tu,Th 12:00PM - 1:25PM
  • S. Cavalcant
Open
16 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Live Online classes have sessions that meet online on specific days and times. Attendance in these sessions will be at the discretion of the instructor, and additional work will be required on the student’s own time. Access to a computer or mobile device with Internet connection is required.

      Before enrolling in their first online class at MCC, students need to view the online orientation and complete the readiness survey on https://www.mesacc.edu/online/get-started for additional information.
      Class 34886 Students may contact instructor at: sylwia.martynowicz@mesacc.edu
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
37397 Fall 2020 Estrella Mountain
Ocotillo LearnStudio 107
In Person 08/25/2020 - 12/18/2020 Tu,Th 2:30PM - 3:45PM
  • S. Azimi-Thomas
Open
8 of 16 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Class 37397 costs include OER Course Materials Fee: $30
    • Additional Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      OER (Open Educational Resources) Materials Fee $30.00
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
34904 Fall 2020 Mesa: Dobson Campus
Live Online Course
Live Online 09/09/2020 - 12/18/2020 W 7:10PM - 9:40PM
  • I. Stephan
Open
21 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Live Online classes have sessions that meet online on specific days and times. Attendance in these sessions will be at the discretion of the instructor, and additional work will be required on the student’s own time. Access to a computer or mobile device with Internet connection is required.

      Before enrolling in their first online class at MCC, students need to view the online orientation and complete the readiness survey on https://www.mesacc.edu/online/get-started for additional information.
      Class 34904 Students may contact instructor at: ian.stephan@mesacc.edu
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
17344 Fall 2020 Chandler-Gilbert: Pecos Campus
CGCC Internet Online
Live Online 08/27/2020 - 12/18/2020 Th 11:30AM - 12:45PM
  • M. McGlasson
Open
10 of 20 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      Live Online classes have sessions that meet online on specific days and times. Attendance in these sessions will be at the direction of the instructor, and additional work will be required on the student's own time. This course requires the use of a computer or mobile device with internet access, a webcam, speakers and microphone.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
13535 Fall 2020 Glendale
Online Class
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • A. Radisich
Open
16 of 24 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      Online Class
      Online classes do not have mandatory meeting times but may include optional virtual components such as review sessions, office hours, etc. at specific times. Students are required to submit a minimum initial assignment within the first five days of class, including the start date. Students are required to have access to a computer/mobile device and reliable Internet access.
      Please contact the department with any questions.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
13426 Fall 2020 Glendale
Online Class
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • A. Radisich
Open
16 of 24 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      Online Class
      Online classes do not have mandatory meeting times but may include optional virtual components such as review sessions, office hours, etc. at specific times. Students are required to submit a minimum initial assignment within the first five days of class, including the start date. Students are required to have access to a computer/mobile device and reliable Internet access.
      Please contact the department with any questions.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
26273 Fall 2020 Glendale
Online Class
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • D. Zhosan
Open
8 of 24 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      Online Class
      Online classes do not have mandatory meeting times but may include optional virtual components such as review sessions, office hours, etc. at specific times. Students are required to submit a minimum initial assignment within the first five days of class, including the start date. Students are required to have access to a computer/mobile device and reliable Internet access.
      Please contact the department with any questions.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
13427 Fall 2020 Glendale
Online Class
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • D. Zhosan
Open
16 of 24 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      Online Class
      Online classes do not have mandatory meeting times but may include optional virtual components such as review sessions, office hours, etc. at specific times. Students are required to submit a minimum initial assignment within the first five days of class, including the start date. Students are required to have access to a computer/mobile device and reliable Internet access.
      Please contact the department with any questions.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
13428 Fall 2020 Glendale
Online Class
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • A. Radisich
Open
12 of 24 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      Online Class
      Online classes do not have mandatory meeting times but may include optional virtual components such as review sessions, office hours, etc. at specific times. Students are required to submit a minimum initial assignment within the first five days of class, including the start date. Students are required to have access to a computer/mobile device and reliable Internet access.
      Please contact the department with any questions.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
13536 Fall 2020 Glendale
Online Class
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • B. Young
Open
22 of 24 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      Online Class
      Online classes do not have mandatory meeting times but may include optional virtual components such as review sessions, office hours, etc. at specific times. Students are required to submit a minimum initial assignment within the first five days of class, including the start date. Students are required to have access to a computer/mobile device and reliable Internet access.
      Please contact the department with any questions.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
13475 Fall 2020 Glendale
Online Class
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • B. Young
Open
21 of 24 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Online Class
      Online classes do not have mandatory meeting times but may include optional virtual components such as review sessions, office hours, etc. at specific times. Students are required to submit a minimum initial assignment within the first five days of class, including the start date. Students are required to have access to a computer/mobile device and reliable Internet access.
      Please contact the department with any questions.
      All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
10092 Fall 2020 GateWay
Online
Online 10/19/2020 - 12/17/2020 N/A N/A
  • H. Hutchins
Open
16 of 24 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: This is a fast-paced HYBRID course that meets in-class according to the schedule listed above. Attendance at in-class meetings and participation in face-to-face activities is required. In addition, there will be significant work required outside of class and online. Basic computer skills and reliable access to a computer and the Internet are REQUIRED for completion of this course. Students not attending the first day of class will be dropped.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
34882 Fall 2020 Mesa: Dobson Campus
On Your Time Online Course
Online 09/08/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • P. Benson
Open
17 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: This is an On Your Time Online class that does not meet at specific class times. Students are required to have access to a computer or mobile device, and Internet access, unless otherwise specified.

      Before enrolling in their first online class at MCC, students need to view the online orientation and complete the readiness survey on https://www.mesacc.edu/online/get-started for additional information.
      Class 34882 Students may contact instructor at: philip.benson@mesacc.edu
      All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
34883 Fall 2020 Mesa: Dobson Campus
On Your Time Online Course
Online 09/08/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • P. Benson
Open
22 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: This is an On Your Time Online class that does not meet at specific class times. Students are required to have access to a computer or mobile device, and Internet access, unless otherwise specified.

      Before enrolling in their first online class at MCC, students need to view the online orientation and complete the readiness survey on https://www.mesacc.edu/online/get-started for additional information.
      Class 34883 Students may contact instructor at: philip.benson@mesacc.edu
      All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
34884 Fall 2020 Mesa: Dobson Campus
On Your Time Online Course
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • D. Henney
Open
5 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: This is an On Your Time Online class that does not meet at specific class times. Students are required to have access to a computer or mobile device, and Internet access, unless otherwise specified.

      Before enrolling in their first online class at MCC, students need to view the online orientation and complete the readiness survey on https://www.mesacc.edu/online/get-started for additional information.
      Class 34884 Students may contact instructor at: debra.henney@mesacc.edu
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
34887 Fall 2020 Mesa: Dobson Campus
On Your Time Online Course
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • D. Henney
Open
8 of 25 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
34888 Fall 2020 Mesa: Dobson Campus
On Your Time Online Course
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • B. Al Hashimi
Open
21 of 25 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
17347 Fall 2020 Chandler-Gilbert: Pecos Campus
CGCC Internet Online
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • L. Zehr
Open
1 of 25 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
17414 Fall 2020 Chandler-Gilbert: Pecos Campus
CGCC Internet Online
Online 08/24/2020 - 10/16/2020 N/A N/A
  • L. Zehr
Open
4 of 25 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
17508 Fall 2020 Chandler-Gilbert: Pecos Campus
CGCC Internet Online
Online 10/19/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • L. Zehr
Open
1 of 20 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
37395 Fall 2020 Estrella Mountain
Internet/ Online Class
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • V. Amavilah
Open
4 of 32 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Honors Program Section comprised of only five students requires an Honors Project.
      This class has been transitioned to an online class. Coursework must be completed according to set deadlines. Students are required to have access to a computer or mobile device, and Internet access, unless otherwise specified
      Class 37395 costs include OER Course Materials Fee: $30
    • Additional Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      OER (Open Educational Resources) Materials Fee $30.00
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
39295 Fall 2020 Estrella Mountain
Internet/ Online Class
Online 10/19/2020 - 12/11/2020 N/A N/A
  • E. Huntsinger
Open
23 of 32 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Additional Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      OER (Open Educational Resources) Materials Fee $30.00
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
39296 Fall 2020 Estrella Mountain
Internet/ Online Class
Online 08/24/2020 - 10/16/2020 N/A N/A
  • E. Huntsinger
Open
25 of 32 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Additional Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      OER (Open Educational Resources) Materials Fee $30.00
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
37391 Fall 2020 Estrella Mountain
Internet/ Online Class
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • K. Archer
Open
30 of 32 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: This class has been transitioned to an online class. Coursework must be completed according to set deadlines. Students are required to have access to a computer or mobile device, and Internet access, unless otherwise specified
      Class 37391 costs include OER Course Materials Fee: $30
    • Additional Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      OER (Open Educational Resources) Materials Fee $30.00
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
37393 Fall 2020 Estrella Mountain
Internet/ Online Class
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • V. Amavilah
Open
4 of 32 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: This class has been transitioned to an online class. Coursework must be completed according to set deadlines. Students are required to have access to a computer or mobile device, and Internet access, unless otherwise specified
      Class 37393 costs include OER Course Materials Fee: $30
    • Additional Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      OER (Open Educational Resources) Materials Fee $30.00
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
35748 Fall 2020 Mesa: Dobson Campus
On Your Time Online Course
Online 08/24/2020 - 10/16/2020 N/A N/A
  • J. Demory
Open
10 of 25 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
35871 Fall 2020 Mesa: Dobson Campus
On Your Time Online Course
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • B. Al Hashimi
Open
23 of 25 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
36365 Fall 2020 Mesa: Dobson Campus
On Your Time Online Course
Online 10/19/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • J. Gustafson
Open
10 of 25 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
36513 Fall 2020 Mesa: Dobson Campus
On Your Time Online Course
Online 10/19/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • J. Gustafson
Open
21 of 25 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
24289 Fall 2020 Paradise Valley
Choices@PV: Online
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/13/2020 N/A N/A
  • C. Nguyen
Open
6 of 23 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
24234 Fall 2020 Paradise Valley
Choices@PV: Online
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/13/2020 N/A N/A
  • P. Thiel
Open
5 of 23 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Online courses require reliable internet access. If you have not taken an online course or used the Canvas Classroom, go to https://www.paradisevalley.edu/academics/distance-learning/online-briefing to read the Online Briefing and take the tutorial. Contact Distance Learning for more information: 602-787-6754.
      Due to COVID19 impact; this course was transitioned from In-person or Hybrid to fully Online for Fall 2020.
      No textbook required for this class.
      All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
24258 Fall 2020 Paradise Valley
Choices@PV: Online
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/13/2020 N/A N/A
  • P. Thiel
Open
16 of 23 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Online courses require reliable internet access. If you have not taken an online course or used the Canvas Classroom, go to https://www.paradisevalley.edu/academics/distance-learning/online-briefing to read the Online Briefing and take the tutorial. Contact Distance Learning for more information: 602-787-6754.
      Due to COVID19 impact; this course was transitioned from In-person or Hybrid to fully Online for Fall 2020.
      No textbook required for this class.
      All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
20443 Fall 2020 Phoenix
ONLINE CANVAS
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/19/2020 N/A N/A
  • S. Thorpe
Open
3 of 20 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
20690 Fall 2020 Phoenix
ONLINE CANVAS
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • R. Bromley
Open
5 of 20 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
20742 Fall 2020 Phoenix
ONLINE CANVAS
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • R. Bromley
Open
7 of 20 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
18190 Fall 2020 Scottsdale
On Your Time Online
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • D. Kumar
Open
23 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      On Your Time Online classes do not meet at specific class times. Coursework must be completed according to deadlines. Students are required to have access to a computer or mobile device, and Internet access, unless otherwise specified.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
18549 Fall 2020 Scottsdale
On Your Time Online
Online 10/19/2020 - 12/11/2020 N/A N/A
  • A. Pal
Open
7 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      On Your Time Online classes do not meet at specific class times. Coursework must be completed according to deadlines. Students are required to have access to a computer or mobile device, and Internet access, unless otherwise specified.
      8-Week Class
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
26536 Fall 2020 Rio Salado
Print Based
Print Based: You can start on any Monday between dates: 08/24/2020 - 10/12/2020 N/A N/A
  • Staff
Open
29 of 30 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Twelve (12) Week Class
      This is a correspondence class. Only the cost of tuition, fees and books is permitted for financial aid. Students pursuing a certificate program are not permitted to receive federal financial aid for correspondence classes. Students cannot complete more than 50% of their program of study via correspondence courses. If you use financial aid to pay for school, please review Section II of your Financial Aid Terms and Conditions at the following web site:
      http://www.riosalado.edu/financial_aid/terms-conditions/Pages/default.aspx .
      All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
26538 Fall 2020 Rio Salado
Print Based
Print Based: You can start on any Monday between dates: 10/19/2020 - 12/07/2020 N/A N/A
  • Staff
Open
30 of 30 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Twelve (12) Week Class
      This is a correspondence class. Only the cost of tuition, fees and books is permitted for financial aid. Students pursuing a certificate program are not permitted to receive federal financial aid for correspondence classes. Students cannot complete more than 50% of their program of study via correspondence courses. If you use financial aid to pay for school, please review Section II of your Financial Aid Terms and Conditions at the following web site:
      http://www.riosalado.edu/financial_aid/terms-conditions/Pages/default.aspx .
      All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
18128 Fall 2020 Scottsdale
On Your Time Online
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • M. Nagano
Open
10 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      On Your Time Online classes do not meet at specific class times. Coursework must be completed according to deadlines. Students are required to have access to a computer or mobile device, and Internet access, unless otherwise specified.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
18129 Fall 2020 Scottsdale
On Your Time Online
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • M. Nagano
Open
18 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
      On Your Time Online classes do not meet at specific class times. Coursework must be completed according to deadlines. Students are required to have access to a computer or mobile device, and Internet access, unless otherwise specified.
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
18130 Fall 2020 Scottsdale
On Your Time Online
Online 09/21/2020 - 11/13/2020 N/A N/A
  • D. Kumar
Open
24 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: 8-Week Class
      On Your Time Online classes do not meet at specific class times. Coursework must be completed according to deadlines. Students are required to have access to a computer or mobile device, and Internet access, unless otherwise specified.
      All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
18131 Fall 2020 Scottsdale
On Your Time Online
Online 08/31/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • M. Nagano
Open
17 of 25 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
18154 Fall 2020 Scottsdale
On Your Time Online
Online 10/26/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • D. Kumar
Open
20 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: 8-Week Class
      On Your Time Online classes do not meet at specific class times. Coursework must be completed according to deadlines. Students are required to have access to a computer or mobile device, and Internet access, unless otherwise specified.
      All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
26556 Fall 2020 Rio Salado
Online Class
Online: You can start on any Monday between dates: 08/24/2020 - 10/12/2020 N/A N/A
  • Staff
Open
21 of 30 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Twelve (12) Week Class
      8-week class option available
      All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
26557 Fall 2020 Rio Salado
Online Class
Online: You can start on any Monday between dates: 10/19/2020 - 12/07/2020 N/A N/A
  • Staff
Open
23 of 30 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Twelve (12) Week Class
      8-week class option available
      All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
19603 Fall 2020 South Mountain
ONLINE
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • B. McHenry
Open
19 of 30 Seats Available
Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
22954 Fall 2020 Phoenix
ONLINE CANVAS
Online 08/24/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • R. Bromley
Open
20 of 20 Seats Available

World Economic Systems (ECN250) 3 Credits

A descriptive analysis of capitalist, socialist and mixed economies. Some consideration also given to the problems of less developed economies. Prerequisites: None.

General Education Designations: G, SB

Class# Semester Location Delivery Dates Days Times Instructor Availability
34926 Fall 2020 Mesa: Dobson Campus
On Your Time Online Course
Online 10/19/2020 - 12/18/2020 N/A N/A
  • S. Cavalcant
Open
23 of 25 Seats Available
  • Notes
    • Class Notes: Class 34926 Online classes are conducted exclusively via the Internet. Before enrolling in their first online class at MCC, students need to view the online orientation and complete the readiness survey on www.mesacc.edu/elearning/get-started for additional information. Students may contact instructor at: sylwia.martynowicz@mesacc.edu
      All textbook and course materials available at no or low cost (<$40) - may include OER (Open Educational Resources).